This research paper investigates the social, economic and territorial effects of cross‐border mobility in the EU. It studies both sending and receiving countries and urban regions to answer three key questions:
- What are the main, recent trends in cross-border labour mobility in the EU?
- What are the social, economic and spatial effects of out-migration on countries and regions of origin? What policy implications do these effects have?
- What are social, economic and spatial effects of in-migration on countries and regions of destination? What policy implications do these effects have?
In order to find out more about local impacts of intra-EU mobility and about more recent labour mobility trends, a desk research has been conducted. The desk research has been supplemented by the description and analysis of a selection of urban case studies, presented in part 2 of the research paper.
The paper offers an analysis of the main cross-border mobility movements in the EU focusing on labour migration. Moreover, it analyses the impact of intra-EU mobility on countries and regions of origin, focusing on countries experiencing significant outflows to other Member States, as well as countries and regions of destination.
The concluding section in this study recapitulates the main conclusions and provides policy recommendations for European, national, regional and local policy makers to tackle potentially negative effects and to strengthen the positive effects of labour mobility in the EU. Some of the key conclusions are as follow: attention to the uneven territorial distribution of benefits and burdens of free movement within the framework of the EU social and territorial cohesion policy, controlling the negative effects of intra-EU mobility and enhancing the positive effects of labour mobility and reducing the negative effects for migrants as well as for countries of origin and of destination.